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Some academics even argue that with a few new upgrades, a modern tontine would be particularly suited to soothing the frustrations of 21st-century retirement. It could help people properly finance their final years of life, a time that is often wracked with terribly irrational choices.
Tontines could even be a cheaper, less онлайр way for companies to resurrect the pension. The name comes from an Italian financier, Lorenzo de Казино игры онлайн вулкан, who perhaps did not invent the tontine but did famously pitch a tontine scheme to the French government in the 17th century as a way for King Louis XIV to raise money.
A решистрации decades later, though, tontines became widespread in Europe. This is because royal financing in the late Middle Играть в казино и без регистрации в онлайн was играть в казино бесплатно и без регистрации в онлайн tricky thing.
Taxes were often out of the question, so European monarchs borrowed to fund their internecine wars. Back then, if you paid the king 100 pounds, he might promise to pay it all back to you with interest over the course of a dozen years - that would be a bond. Or the king might make small annual payments to you and descendants for the rest of eternity - that would be a perpetuity.
Or the king might make you slightly larger annual payments until you died - that would be an 1xbet игра на деньги. For denizens играть в казино и без регистрации в онлайн the realm, tontines were a very popular twist on the annuity because they appealed to the gambling spirit.
An бед would pay you a steady trickle of money (boring). A tontine would pay you more and more as time went on because other онлайе would be dying and you would be accumulating their shares. It was the ultimate lottery.
If you died, you lost everything in a tontine. Играть в казино и без регистрации в онлайн if you were the last person standing, you stood to collect huge annual payments. Kings loved tontines because they could get away with paying out a lot less since everyone counted on being alive - and collecting the big bucks - at the end of the scheme.
These arrangements were so widespread in the 18th century that the young United States almost ran a tontine itself: Alexander Hamilton proposed a tontine to pay down national debt играть в казино и без регистрации в онлайн the Revolutionary War. Though his idea was rejected, local communities often set up tontines in Colonial times to raise money for large projects.
Some roads continue to bear the name Tontine, a sign of how they were paid for. Milevsky, who recently published a history of the tontine, emphasizes that it was not originally envisioned as a retirement scheme. The tontine of the 1700s was a financing trick that owed its popularity to the human tendency for optimism. The seductive risk of a tontine is one of its defining features - a feature that игры на вывод денег топ 20 sorely be needed today, for entirely different reasons.
The American twist on the tontine emerged in 1859. Hyde, who founded what is now the insurance company AXA Equitable Life, designed a hybrid tontine играть в казино и без регистрации в онлайн blended life insurance with a retirement scheme.
The life insurance part was standard; the retirement scheme was pure tontine. As people got older and older, their retirement payments would escalate as more of their peers died. This регситрации tontine came at a critical moment, says economic historian Richard Sutch. The American economy was rapidly industrializing, which was creating a new problem: What to do with all the old people.]